Taken from the official translation of the German Sustainable Development Strategy
The data regarding domestic final energy consumption originates from the TREMOD (Transport Emissions Estimation Model) database at the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research. TREMOD is a model for evaluating transport emissions. The data record fuel consumption associated with passenger transport within Germany, irrespective of where refuelling takes place (in accordance with the principle of actual final consumption). “Final energy” refers to that part of the total energy used that is directly consumed in transport, so it excludes conversion losses that arise during the production of fuels as well as any pipeline losses that may occur.
The volume of passenger transport is expressed in terms of the number of passenger-kilometres travelled. Provided by TREMOD, this figure is used to calculate the specific level of energy consumption in this sector. In the aviation statistics, only domestic flights are taken into account. International flights departing from or landing in German territory are not counted. Nor is waterborne passenger transport included.
Some 30.1% of overall final energy consumption can be attributed to transport. Of this, more than 70% is accounted for by passenger transport. Savings in final energy consumption in passenger transport therefore have a marked effect on total energy consumption in Germany. The number of passenger-kilometres provides information about the extent to which transport intensity or the distance per transported tonne changes. In addition to final energy consumption, the indicator also examines energy efficiency in passenger transport, measured in terms of energy consumption per passenger-kilometre.
Final energy consumption in passenger transport decreased by a total of 0.9% between 2005 and 2018. However, analysis of progress since 2008 reveals that the indicator value increased by 1.1%, meaning that final energy consumption in passenger transport is developing contrary to the target set in the German Sustainable Development Strategy.
Although the number of passenger-kilometres covered increased by 9.0% between 2005 and 2018, energy consumption with reference to all forms of transport fell by 9.1% to 1.49 megajoules per passenger-kilometre during the same period. This indicates a notable increase in efficiency in passenger transport. A particularly large share of the efficiency gain can be attributed to the railways. The number of passenger-kilometres travelled by rail rose by 25.3%, while final energy consumption was reduced by 8.9%. This equates to a 27.3% increase in efficiency. A significant increase in efficiency was also achieved in aviation, with a 17.1% rise compared with 2005. Road transport registered a slight gain in efficiency of 7.4% recently, thanks to a rise in passenger-kilometres, even though final energy consumption remained almost constant (-0.5%).
Private motorised transport by car or two-wheeled vehicle accounted for 81.4% of total passenger transport volumes in 2018. Its share in 2017 was 81.6%. It can be subdivided into various categories. In 2017 (more recent figures not yet available), work-related transport, i.e. commuter traffic and business travel, accounted for the largest share, at 39.2%, followed by recreational transport at 29.5%. Travel for shopping accounted for 17.1%. These purpose-based categories of transport have developed differently since 2005. Work-related travel in particularly has increased significantly (+30.0%), while journeys for recreation or shopping have declined (-11.4% and -2.7% respectively).